H2F Human Performance Optimization

H2F Human Performance Optimization is the Army’s Soldier readiness system for physical and nonphysical training. The Army enables it with the five enduring elements of governance, program, personnel, equipment and facilities, and leadership education. The H2F program must meet the commander’s training goals to develop and maintain a high level of readiness appropriate to the unit’s mission-essential task list, individual Soldier duty positions, and challenges of multi-domain operations.

H2F is designed to optimize Soldier personal readiness, reduce injury rates, improve rehabilitation after injury, and increase the overall effectiveness of the Total Army.

H2F is an investment to improve Soldier and unit readiness by addressing the 5 domains of physical and non-physical readiness:

Eight Dimensions of Wellness

Five Domains of H2F

The five domains of the holistic health and fitness (H2F) program build the Army’s readiness goals and are based on the principles of optimization, individualization, and immersion. The goal is to improve each Soldier’s physical lethality and mental toughness through the linking of physical readiness, nutritional readiness, mental readiness, spiritual readiness, and sleep readiness.

  • Mental Readiness
  • Sleep Readiness
  • Nutritional Readiness
  • Physical Readiness
  • Spiritual Readiness

Mental Readiness

Mental readiness is the ability to meet the mental demands of any combat or duty position, adapt successfully in the presence of extreme risk and adversity, accomplish the mission, and continue to fight and win.

Sleep Readiness

Sleep is the critical requirement for brain health and function. Sleep readiness is the ability to recognize and implement the requisite sleep principles and behaviors to support optimal brain function. In turn, sleep readiness underpins a Soldier’s ability to meet the physical and nonphysical demands of any duty or combat position, accomplish the mission, and continue to fight and win.

Nutritional Readiness

Nutritional readiness is the ability to recognize, select, and consume the requisite food and drink to meet the physical and nonphysical demands of any duty or combat position, accomplish the mission and come home healthy.

Physical Readiness

Physical readiness is the ability to meet the physical demands of any duty or combat position, move lethally on the battlefield, accomplish the mission and continue to fight, win, and come home healthy.

Mental Readiness

Mental readiness is the ability to meet the mental demands of any combat or duty position, adapt successfully in the presence of extreme risk and adversity, accomplish the mission, and continue to fight and win.

Spiritual Readiness

Spiritual readiness includes the development of the personal qualities needed to sustain a person in times of stress, hardship, and tragedy. These qualities come from religious, philosophical, or human values and form the basis for character, disposition, decision making, and integrity.

Five Elements of H2F

The H2F System is comprised of five critical elements: governance, program, equipment and facilities, personnel and leader education. These elements are essential to the success of Army readiness. They ensure and sustain Soldier readiness.

  • Governance
  • Program
  • Equipment & Facilities
  • Personnel
  • Leader Education

Training Cycles

Training Periods

Period Characteristics
Base High volume, low intensity training
Build Moderate to high volume training at high intensity
Taper / Peak 1 Low volume training at high intensity and high levels of skill
Combat / Peak 2 Peak levels of skill with low levels of volume; for example deployment
Recovery Reconditioning after prolonged absence from H2F System or as a deload after Peak 2

H2F Macrocycle

(4–12 weeks)
(4–8 weeks)
Peak 1
(2–3 weeks)
Combat / Peak 2
(2 weeks +)
(4–8 weeks)


High volume

Low intensity

General strength, endurance and movement skill

Needs assessment
Moderate to high volume

High Intensity

Specific strength, endurance and movement skill
Low volume

High intensity

High skill
Peak skill

Low volume

Multi-hour, day, week or month operations
Active rest

Physical rehabilitation

Goal assessment


Needs assessment

Periodized energy and macronutrient intakes for body composition

Energy availability

Education for strategic timing of nutrient intake around training sessions

Macronutrient availability training to stimulate metabolic efficiency
Energy intake adapted to changes in training

Specific support for key sessions or environmental conditions (heat, cold, altitude)

Body composition refinement

Practice of field training, operational or combat nutritional strategy
Energy intake adapted for high intensity training to avoid weight gain

Monitoring for optimal body composition prior to combat
Support or fueling for combat including recovery between varying lengths of engagements and patrols and varying environmental conditions

Nutrition supplementation practices

Nutritional strategies for travel across multiple time zones
Goal assessment

Nutrition adapted for light activity levels

Minimal weight gain

Elimination of supplements and ergogenic aids and performance enhancers

Active nutrition for recovery or rehabilitation


Needs assessment

Purposeful motivational skill training

Biopsychosocial pain control skill training

Values-based self-assessment

Technique practice (mental rehearsal, arousal control, deliberate breathing)
Perception work

Video biofeedback for physical and physiological control

Daily selfawareness log
Optimal arousal

Concentration or focus

Maximized emotional selfmanagement

Occupational and combat-specific mental rehearsal
Maximal trust, confidence and adaptability

Written combat coping plan

Spiritual justification selftalk

Goal review and new goal setting Deliberate, effective reevaluation of self, self-identity

Counseling to mitigate or treat posttraumatic stress

Reachback or counseling to review, accommodate, assimilate experiences


Needs assessment

Understand the spectrum of options that individuals have to observe free exercise of spiritual fitness or not

Emphasize basis or basics of spiritual fitness

Rehearse individual spiritual fitness practices
Refine individual spiritual fitness practices to build individual strength.

Understand shared practices to build mutual respect and group cohesion
Sustain group and individual spiritual fitness practices

Review spiritual fitness topics before and after stressful training events
Support unit members spiritual fitness needs in challenging and stressful conditions Goal assessment


Repair spiritual fitness


Needs assessment

Appropriate sleep to maximize base period training adaptations

May involve withholding sleep to maximize adaptation
Practice of field training, operational or combat sleep strategies

Specific sleep strategies to maximize absorption of training and improve recovery
Increased sleep to maximize recovery from previous build period and the high-intensity training of the taper period. Implementation of sleep strategies to manage recovery and preparation for travel, jet lag and high operational load Goal assessment of short and longterm sleep strategy—what worked?

References: FM 7-22 (Holistic Health and Fitness) & Army Techniques Publications (ATP 7-22.01 and ATP 7-22.02)